Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Though the wines produced in this region represent only 2 % of the Italy's production, to some they are comparable in quality to wine produced in Piedmont and Tuscany. The main difference between the regions is that here the wines are mostly white, though some exceptional red can be found as well. The northern part is very mountainous and gives way to 70 % of flatter terrain and plains on the way to the sea. The climate is distinguished with very warm days and chilly nights that helps to maintain a balance in the grape between acidity and sugar levels and allows the grapes a long, slow growing season. In summertime the mean temperature is around 22 √,¬įC. The harvest takes place in September. The soils of the region vary from the calcium rich marl and flysch sandstone in the more hilly regions to the clay, sand and gravel in the valley. The names of Friuli vineyards and wine estates often include the word ronco (plural ronchi), which is the Friulian word for a terraced hillside.

The region vineyards cover is 18.900 ha; annual wine production is 1,115,000 hectoliters; 52% white, 48% red; 60.5% is DOC or DOCG wines. It produces 2 DOCG wines, Ramandolo and Picolit, and 11 DOC wines.

The foremost white wine produced in this region is the Tocai Friulano. Because of a confusion between a Hungarian grape called Tokaj and a French one called Tokay, the EC has demanded name changes of the French and Friuli grapes by 2006, allowing Hungary to keep the original Tokaj name. Other local whites include Chardonnay, M√f¬ľller-Thurgau, Pinot Bianco, Pinot Grigio, Ribolla Gialla, Riesling Italico and Riesling Renano, Sauvignon Blanc, Traminer Aromatico, Verduzzo and Malvasia Istriana. Among the red produced are Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Collio and Collio Cabernet, Merlot, Pignolo, Pinot Nero, Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso, Schioppettino, Tazzelenghe, and Terrano.

The region can be divided in 4 important wine zones:

  • the hilly DOC wine areas Colli Orientali del Friuli (near Cividale del Friuli) and Collio (between Cormons and Gorizia). Colli Orientali is the area of Ramandolo and Picolit, but both areas are producing excellent Chardonnay, Pinot Grigio, Ribolla Gialla, Merlot and Cabernets. 80 % of production is white wines.
  • The along river plain DOC areas: vast Friuli Grave area (reaching Pordenone, San Daniele, Udine and finishing north of Latisana) and small Friuli Isonzo south of Cormons. Great spumante area of Chardonnay and Pinot Grigio. Red wines Cabarnet franc and Merlot.
  • The coastline DOC Friulis: Latisana, Annia and Aquileia: spumante and frizzante of Chardonnay and Pinot Bianco
  • The boardline karst DOC area Carso near Trieste. Terrano red wine made by Refosco grapes. The peculiar quality of the sun and soil of the Carso area contribute to the wine√Ę‚,¨‚"Ęs particular characteristics. Low in alcohol, it is sometimes prescribed by doctors to cure digestive problems as well as to patients who need iron, because its acidity is thought to be beneficial. The Lison-Pramaggiore region is shared with the Veneto. The area produce sparkling wines of Chardonnay and Pinot Bianco.


    The wine history of this region is started by Illyrians 1200 AC √Ę‚,¨‚?o the north-east corner of Italy is one of the oldest inhabited Italian regions, already 20,000 years ago. The Romans built roads and founded cities like Aquileia, but also introduced new methods of cultivation. Later the invasions of barbaric tribes emptied the area, and the next prosperous time came so late than 18th century, when Habsburg family established the √Ę‚,¨Ň"free ports√Ę‚,¨¬Ě of Trieste and Fiume, giving the Austrian empire access to the Mediterranean Sea. This generated a wide economic and social gap between these two newly prosperous centers and the poverty-ridden Friuli and Carnia areas. The region has a thousand year tradition of artistic mosaic making which dates back to pre-Roman times. The mosaics inside the still functioning basilica of Aquileia, which was built by the Romans, are excellent examples of this ancient art. The local traditional festivals are an expression of the complex ethno-linguistic history of this part of Italy. Some of the dialects spoken in these areas are derived from a neo-Latin language called ladino, while others have strong Venetian influences, and still others derive from the Slavic language. Of particular interest is Resia, where the locals speak an ancient Slavic dialect and perform unique traditional dances accompanied by violin music which is unparalleled throughout Italy.


    t is a city and port in northeastern Italy very near to the Slovenian border and it√Ę‚,¨‚"Ęs located at the head of the Gulf of Trieste on the Adriatic Sea. Throughout its history, it has been influenced by its geographic position at the crossroads of Germanic, Latin and Slavic culture. It flourished as part of Austria from 1382 until 1918 when it was one of the few seaports in what was one of the Great Powers of Europe. It was among the most prosperous Mediterranean seaports as well as a capital of literature and music. Today it is an important border town, and with a population of 208 278, it is also the capital of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trieste province.

  • Castle of Miramare of Archduke Maximilian.
  • The Cathedral of San Giusto.
  • The Serb-Orthodox Temple of Holy Trinity and St. Spiridio (1869).
  • Israelite Temple of Trieste (1912)
  • Arch of Riccardo (33 BC). It is an Augustan gate built in the Roman walls in 33. It stands in Piazzetta Barbacan, in the narrow streets of the old town.
  • Roman theatre lies at the foot of the San Giusto hill, facing the sea. The construction partially exploits the gentle slope of the hill, and much of the theatre is made of stone.
  • Grotta Gigante, the largest tourist cave in the world, with a single cavity large enough to contain St Peter's in Rome, and the Cave of Trebiciano (350 m deep) at the bottom of which flows the Timavo River. This river dives underground at √.¬†kocjan Caves in Slovenia (they are on UNESCO list) and flows about 30 km before emerging about 1 km from the sea in a series of springs near Duino reputed by the Romans to be an entrance to Hades.
  • Cafe degli Specchi (Mirror caf√f¬©) on Piazza dell√Ę‚,¨‚"ĘUnita; one of the oldest coffee shops in Italy
  • The Risiera di San Sabba (Risiera di San Sabba Museum)', a national monument. It is a testimonial of the only Nazi extermination camp in Italy.


    It is a city in the middle of Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic sea and the Alps, less than 40 km from the Slovenian border. Its population was 97,880. A city rich in history whose traces are in the local museums. In the 1550s Andrea Palladio erected some buildings in Udine.

  • The church of Santa Maria della Purit√f¬† has 18th-century frescoes by Giambattista Tiepolo and his son Domenico
  • .
  • The local museum of History and Gallery of Arts is in the ancient castle
  • Piazza Liberia, one of the most beautiful squares in the Venetian area.
  • The Loggia del Lionello (1448). It is made in white and pink marble in a venetian-gothic style.
  • Torre dell√Ę‚,¨‚"ĘOrologio and the Loggia di S. Giovanni. The roads departing from the square were the seat of the most ancient street market.


    It is an ancient Roman city founded 181 BC, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natisone. The site of Aquileia, believed to be the largest Roman city yet to be excavated, is inscribed on the World Heritage List.

  • Cathedral of Aquileia is one of the most important edifices of Christianity (1031): mosaic pavement from the 4th century
  • The ancient buildings of Aquileia served as stone quarries for centuries, and no edifices of the Roman period remain above ground. Excavations have revealed one street and the north-west angle of the town walls, while the National Archaeological Museum (one of the most important museums of Ancient Rome in the world) contains over 2,000 inscriptions, statues and other antiquities, as well as glasses of local production and a numismatics collection.
  • Monastero fraction is a 5th century Christian basilica, later a Benedictine monastery, which today houses the Paleo-Christian Museum.
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